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LIPOSTATIN

Composition

Lipostatin 10

Each film coated tablet contains:

Atorvastatin (as Atorvastatin calcium)                  10 mg

Lipostatin 20

Each film coated tablet contains:

Atorvastatin (as Atorvastatin calcium)                  20 mg

Pharmacotherapeutic group:

Lipid modifying agents, HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors,

ATC code: C10AA05

Pharmaceutical Form

Film coated tablet

Lipostatin 10: Blue coloured, circular, biconvex film coated tablets, plain on both sides.

Lipostatin 20: White coloured, circular, biconvex film coated tablets, plain on both sides.

Therapeutic indications

Hypercholesterolaemia

Lipostatin is indicated as an adjunct to diet for reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia including familial hypercholesterolaemia (heterozygous variant) or combined (mixed) hyperlipidaemia (Corresponding to Types IIa and IIb of the Fredrickson classification) when response to diet and other nonpharmacological measures is inadequate.

Lipostatin is also indicated to reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g. LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable.

Prevention of cardiovascular disease

Prevention of cardiovascular events in patients estimated to have a high risk for a first cardiovascular event, as an adjunct to correction of other risk factors.

Pharmacological Properties

Pharmacodynamic

Atorvastatin is a selective, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols, including cholesterol. Triglycerides and cholesterol in the liver are incorporated into very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and released into the plasma for delivery to peripheral tissues. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is formed from VLDL and is catabolized primarily through the receptor with high affinity to LDL (LDL receptor).

Atorvastatin lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein serum concentrations by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and subsequently cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver and increases the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell surface for enhanced uptake and catabolism of LDL.

Atorvastatin reduces LDL production and the number of LDL particles. Atorvastatin produces a profound and sustained increase in LDL receptor activity coupled with a beneficial change in the quality of circulating LDL particles. Atorvastatin is effective in reducing LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, a population that has not usually responded to lipid-lowering medicinal products.

Atorvastatin has been shown to reduce concentrations of total-C (30% – 46%), LDL-C (41% – 61%), apolipoprotein B (34% – 50%), and triglycerides (14% – 33%) while producing variable increases in HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 in a dose response study. These results are consistent in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolaemia, and mixed hyperlipidaemia, including patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Reductions in total-C, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B have been proven to reduce risk for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality.

Atorvastatin has clinical efficacy on the following diseases:

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia

Atherosclerosis

Acute coronary syndrome

Prevention of cardiovascular disease

Pharmacokinetic

Absorption

Atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) occur within 1 to 2 hours. Extent of absorption increases in proportion to atorvastatin dose. After oral administration, atorvastatin film-coated tablets are 95% to 99% bioavailable compared to the oral solution. The absolute bioavailability of atorvastatin is approximately 12% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic availability is attributed to presystemic clearance in gastrointestinal mucosa and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism

Distribution

Mean volume of distribution of atorvastatin is approximately 3811. Atorvastatin is ≥ 98% bound to plasma proteins.

Biotransformation

Atorvastatin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxidation products. Apart from other pathways these products are further metabolized via glucuronidation. In vitro, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent to that of atorvastatin. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active metabolites.

Elimination

Atorvastatin is eliminated primarily in bile following hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. However, atorvastatin does not appear to undergo significant enterohepatic recirculation. Mean plasma elimination half-life of atorvastatin in humans is approximately 14 hours. The half-life of inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is approximately 20 to 30 hours due to the contribution of active metabolites.

Dosage and Administration:

The patient should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet before receiving LIPOSTATIN and should continue on this diet during treatment with LIPOSTATIN.

The dose should be individualized according to baseline LDL-C levels, the goal of therapy, and patient response.

The usual starting dose is 10 mg once a day. Adjustment of dose should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more. The maximum dose is 80 mg once a day.

Primary hypercholesterolaemia and combined (mixed) hyperlipidaemia

The majority of patients are controlled with LIPOSTATIN 10 mg once a day. A therapeutic response is evident within 2 weeks, and the maximum therapeutic response is usually achieved within 4 weeks. The response is maintained during chronic therapy.

Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia

Patients should be started with LIPOSTATIN 10 mg daily. Doses should be individualised and adjusted every 4 weeks to 40 mg daily. Thereafter, either the dose may be increased to a maximum of 80 mg daily or a bile acid sequestrant may be combined with 40 mg atorvastatin once daily.

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia

Only limited data are available.

The dose of atorvastatin in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is 10 to 80 mg daily. Atorvastatin should be used as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g. LDL apheresis) in these patients or if such treatments are unavailable.

Prevention of cardiovascular disease

In the primary prevention trials the dose was 10 mg/day. Higher doses may be necessary in order to attain (LDL-) cholesterol levels according to current guidelines.

Renal impairment

No adjustment of dose is required.

Hepatic impairment

Lipostatin should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment. Lipostatin is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease.

Use in the elderly

Efficacy and safety in patients older than 70 using recommended doses are similar to those seen in the general population.

Paediatric use

Paediatric use should only be carried out by specialists.

Experience in paediatrics is limited to a small number of patients (age 4 – 17 years) with severe dyslipidemias, such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The recommended starting dose in this population is 10 mg of atorvastatin per day. The dose may be increased to 80 mg daily, according to the response and tolerability. Developmental safety data in this population have not been evaluated.

Method of administration

Lipostatin is for oral administration. Each daily dose of atorvastatin is given all at once and may be given at any time of day with or without food.

Contraindications:

Lipostatin is contra-indicated in patients with:

  • with hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients of this medicinal product
  • with active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases exceeding 3 times the upper limit of normal
  • during pregnancy, while breast-feeding and in women of child-bearing potential not using appropriate contraceptive measures.

Special warnings and precautions for use:

Liver effects

Liver function tests should be performed before the initiation of treatment and periodically thereafter. Patients who develop any signs or symptoms suggestive of liver injury should have liver function tests performed. Patients who develop increased transaminase levels should be monitored until the abnormality(ies) resolve. Should an increase in transaminases of greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) persist, reduction of dose or withdrawal of LIPOSTATIN is recommended.

LIPOSTATIN should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of liver disease.

Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL)

In a post-hoc analysis of stroke subtypes in patients without coronary heart disease (CHD) who had a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) there was a higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in patients initiated on atorvastatin 80 mg compared to placebo. The increased risk was particularly noted in patients with prior hemorrhagic stroke or lacunar infarct at study entry. For patients with prior hemorrhagic stroke or lacunar infarct, the balance of risks and benefits of atorvastatin 80 mg is uncertain, and the potential risk of hemorrhagic stroke should be carefully considered before initiating treatment.

Skeletal muscle effects

Atorvastatin, like other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, may in rare occasions affect the skeletal muscle and cause myalgia, myositis, and myopathy that may progress to rhabdomyolysis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterised by markedly elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels (> 10 times ULN), myoglobinaemia and myoglobinuria which may lead to renal failure.

Before the treatment

Atorvastatin should be prescribed with caution in patients with pre-disposing factors for rhabdomyolysis. A CK level should be measured before starting statin treatment in the following situations:

  • Renal impairment
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Personal or familial history of hereditary muscular disorders
  • Previous history of muscular toxicity with a statin or fibrate
  • Previous history of liver disease and/or where substantial quantities of alcohol are consumed
  • In elderly (age > 70 years), the necessity of such measurement should be considered, according to the presence of other predisposing factors for rhabdomyolysis
  • Situations where an increase in plasma levels may occur, such as interactions and special populations including genetic subpopulations.

In such situations, the risk of treatment should be considered in relation to possible benefit, and clinical monitoring is recommended.

If CK levels are significantly elevated (> 5 times ULN) at baseline, treatment should not be started.

Creatine kinase measurement

Creatine kinase (CK) should not be measured following strenuous exercise or in the presence of any plausible alternative cause of CK increase as this makes value interpretation difficult. If CK levels are significantly elevated at baseline (> 5 times ULN), levels should be remeasured within 5 to 7 days later to confirm the results.

Whilst on treatment

Patients must be asked to promptly report muscle pain, cramps, or weakness especially if accompanied by malaise or fever.

If such symptoms occur whilst a patient is receiving treatment with atorvastatin, their CK levels should be measured. If these levels are found to be significantly elevated (> 5 times ULN), treatment should be stopped.

If muscular symptoms are severe and cause daily discomfort, even if the CK levels are elevated to ≤ 5 x ULN, treatment discontinuation should be considered.

If symptoms resolve and CK levels return to normal, then re-introduction of atorvastatin or introduction of an alternative statin may be considered at the lowest dose and with close monitoring.

Atorvastatin must be discontinued if clinically significant elevation of CK levels (> 10 x ULN) occur, or if rhabdomyolysis is diagnosed or suspected.

Concomitant treatment with other medicinal products

Risk of rhabdomyolysis is increased when atorvastatin is administered concomitantly with certain medicinal products that may increase the plasma concentration of atorvastatin such as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 or transport proteins (e.g. ciclosporine, telithromycin, clarithromycin, delavirdine, stiripentol, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and HIV protease inhibitors including ritonavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, indinavir, darunavir, etc). The risk of myopathy may also be increased with the concomitant use of gemfibrozil and other fibric acid derivates, erythromycin, niacin and ezetimibe. If possible, alternative (non-interacting) therapies should be considered instead of these medicinal products.

In cases where co-administration of these medicinal products with atorvastatin is necessary, the benefit and the risk of concurrent treatment should be carefully considered. When patients are receiving medicinal products that increase the plasma concentration of atorvastatin, a lower maximum dose of atorvastatin is recommended. In addition, in the case of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, a lower starting dose of atorvastatin should be considered and appropriate clinical monitoring of these patients is recommended.

The concurrent use of atorvastatin and fusidic acid is not recommended, therefore, temporary suspension of atorvastatin may be considered during fusidic acid therapy.

Interstitial lung disease

Exceptional cases of interstitial lung disease have been reported with some statins, especially with long term therapy. Presenting features can include dyspnoea, non-productive cough and deterioration in general health (fatigue, weight loss and fever). If it is suspected a patient has developed interstitial lung disease, statin therapy should be discontinued.

Excipients

LIPOSTATIN contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, Lapp lactose deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Adverse Effects:

In the atorvastatin placebo-controlled clinical trial database of 16,066 patients treated for a mean period of 53 weeks, 5.2% of patients on atorvastatin discontinued due to adverse reactions compared to 4.0% of the patients on placebo.

Based on data from clinical studies and extensive post-marketing experience, the following table presents the adverse reaction profile for atorvastatin.

Estimated frequencies of reactions are ranked according to the following convention: common (≥ 1/100, < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000, < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000, < 1/1,000); very rare (≤ 1/10,000).

Infections and infestations:

Common: nasopharyngitis.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare: thrombocytopenia.

Immune system disorders

Common: allergic reactions.

Very rare: anaphylaxis.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Common: hyperglycaemia.

Uncommon: hypoglycaemia, weight gain, anorexia

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon: nightmare, insomnia.

Nervous system disorders

Common: headache.

Uncommon: dizziness, paraesthesia, hypoesthesia, dysgeusia, amnesia.

Rare: peripheral neuropathy.

Eye disorders

Uncommon: vision blurred.

Rare: visual disturbance.

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon: tinnitus

Very rare: hearing loss.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:

Common: pharyngolaryngeal pain, epistaxis.

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common: constipation, flatulence, dyspepsia, nausea, diarrhoea.

Uncommon: vomiting, abdominal pain upper and lower, eructation, pancreatitis.

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon: hepatitis.

Rare: cholestasis.

Very rare: hepatic failure.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Uncommon: urticaria, skin rash, pruritus, alopecia.

Rare: angioneurotic oedema, dermatitis bullous including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Common: myalgia, arthralgia, pain in extremity, muscle spasms, joint swelling, back pain.

Uncommon: neck pain, muscle fatigue.

Rare: myopathy, myositis, rhabdomyolysis, tendonopathy, sometimes complicated by rupture.

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Very rare: gynecomastia.

General disorders and administration site conditions

Uncommon: malaise, asthenia, chest pain, peripheral oedema, fatigue, pyrexia.

Investigations

Common: liver function test abnormal, blood creatine kinase increased.

Uncommon: white blood cells urine positive.

As with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors elevated serum transaminases have been reported in patients receiving LIPOSTATIN. These changes were usually mild, transient, and did not require interruption of treatment. Clinically important (> 3 times upper normal limit) elevations in serum transaminases occurred in 0.8% patients on LIPOSTATIN. These elevations were dose related and were reversible in all patients.

Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels greater than 3 times upper limit of normal occurred in 2.5% of patients on LIPOSTATIN, similar to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in clinical trials. Levels above 10 times the normal upper range occurred in 0.4% LIPOSTATIN treated patients.

The following adverse events have been reported with some statins:

  • Sexual dysfunction.
  • Exceptional cases of interstitial lung disease, especially with long term therapy.

Fertility, Pregnancy and lactation:

Women of childbearing potential

Women of child-bearing potential should use appropriate contraceptive measures during treatment.

Pregnancy

LIPOSTATIN is contraindicated during pregnancy. Safety in pregnant women has not been established. No controlled clinical trials with atorvastatin have been conducted in pregnant women. Rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been received. Animal studies have shown toxicity to reproduction.

Maternal treatment with atorvastatin may reduce the fetal levels of mevalonate which is a precursor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process, and ordinarily discontinuation of lipid-lowering medicinal products during pregnancy should have little impact on the long-term risk associated with primary hypercholesterolaemia.

For these reasons, LIPOSTATIN should not be used in women who are pregnant, trying to become pregnant or suspect they are pregnant. Treatment with LIPOSTATIN should be suspended for the duration of pregnancy or until it has been determined that the woman is not pregnant.

Breastfeeding

It is not known whether atorvastatin or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. In rats, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and its active metabolites are similar to those in milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, women taking LIPOSTATIN should not breast-feed their infants. Atorvastatin is contraindicated during breastfeeding.

Fertility

In animal studies atorvastatin had no effect on male or female fertility.

Drug Interaction:

Effect of co-administered medicinal products on atorvastatin

Atorvastatin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and is a substrate to transport proteins e.g. the hepatic uptake transporter OATP1B1. Concomitant administration of medicinal products that are inhibitors of CYP3A4 or transport proteins may lead to increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and an increased risk of myopathy. The risk might also be increased at concomitant administration of atorvastatin with other medicinal products that have a potential to induce myopathy, such as fibric acid derivates and ezetimibe.

CYP3A4 inhibitors

Potent CYP3A4 inhibitors have been shown to lead to markedly increased concentrations of atorvastatin. Co-administration of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ciclosporin, telithromycin, clarithromycin, delavirdine, stiripentol, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and HIV protease inhibitors including ritonavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, indinavir, darunavir, etc.) should be avoided if possible. In cases where co-administration of these medicinal products with atorvastatin cannot be avoided lower starting and maximum doses of atorvastatin should be considered and appropriate clinical monitoring of the patient is recommended.

Moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. erythromycin, diltiazem, verapamil and fluconazole) may increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. An increased risk of myopathy has been observed with the use of erythromycin in combination with statins. Interaction studies evaluating the effects of amiodarone or verapamil on atorvastatin have not been conducted. Both amiodarone and verapamil are known to inhibit CYP3A4 activity and co-administration with atorvastatin may result in increased exposure to atorvastatin. Therefore, a lower maximum dose of atorvastatin should be considered and appropriate clinical monitoring of the patient is recommended when concomitantly used with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Appropriate clinical monitoring is recommended after initiation or following dose adjustments of the inhibitor.

CYP3A4 inducers

Concomitant administration of atorvastatin with inducers of cytochrome P450 3A (e.g. efavirenz, rifampin, St. John’s Wort) can lead to variable reductions in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Due to the dual interaction mechanism of rifampin, (cytochrome P450 3A induction and inhibition of hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B1), simultaneous co-administration of atorvastatin with rifampin is recommended, as delayed administration of atorvastatin after administration of rifampin has been associated with a significant reduction in atorvastatin plasma concentrations. The effect of rifampin on atorvastatin concentrations in hepatocytes is, however, unknown and if concomitant administration cannot be avoided, patients should be carefully monitored for efficacy.

Transport protein inhibitors

Inhibitors of transport proteins (e.g. ciclosporin) can increase the systemic exposure of atorvastatin. The effect of inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters on atorvastatin concentrations in hepatocytes is unknown. If concomitant administration cannot be avoided, a dose reduction and clinical monitoring for efficacy is recommended.

Gemfibrozil / fibric acid derivatives

The use of fibrates alone is occasionally associated with muscle related events, including rhabdomyolysis. The risk of these events may be increased with the concomitant use of fibric acid derivatives and atorvastatin. If concomitant administration cannot be avoided, the lowest dose of atorvastatin to achieve the therapeutic objective should be used and the patients should be appropriately monitored.

Ezetimibe

The use of ezetimibe alone is associated with muscle related events, including rhabdomyolysis. The risk of these events may therefore be increased with concomitant use of ezetimibe and atorvastatin. Appropriate clinical monitoring of these patients is recommended.

Colestipol

Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and its active metabolites were lower (by approx. 25%) when colestipol was co-administered with LIPOSTATIN. However, lipid effects were greater when LIPOSTATIN and colestipol were co-administered than when either medicinal product was given alone.

Fusidic acid

Interaction studies with atorvastatin and fusidic acid have not been conducted. As with other statins, muscle related events, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported in post-marketing experience with atorvastatin and fusidic acid given concurrently. The mechanism of this interaction is not known. Patients should be closely monitored and temporary suspension of atorvastatin treatment may be appropriate.

Effect of atorvastatin on co-administered medicinal products

Digoxin

When multiple doses of digoxin and 10 mg atorvastatin were co-administered, steady-state digoxin concentrations increased slightly. Patients taking digoxin should be monitored appropriately.

Oral contraceptives

Co-administration of LIPOSTATIN with an oral contraceptive produced increases in plasma concentrations of norethindrone and ethinyl oestradiol.

Warfarin

In a clinical study in patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy, coadministration of atorvastatin 80 mg daily with warfarin caused a small decrease of about 1.7 seconds in prothrombin time during the first 4 days of dosing which returned to normal within 15 days of atorvastatin treatment. Although only very rare cases of clinically significant anticoagulant interactions have been reported, prothrombin time should be determined before starting atorvastatin in patients taking coumarin anticoagulants and frequently enough during early therapy to ensure that no significant alteration of prothrombin time occurs. Once a stable prothrombin time has been documented, prothrombin times can be monitored at the intervals usually recommended for patients on coumarin anticoagulants. If the dose of atorvastatin is changed or discontinued, the same procedure should be repeated. Atorvastatin therapy has not been associated with bleeding or with changes in prothrombin time in patients not taking anticoagulants.

Overdose:

Specific treatment is not available for LIPOSTATIN overdose. Should an overdose occur, the patient should be treated symptomatically and supportive measures instituted, as required. Liver function tests should be performed and serum CK levels should be monitored. Due to extensive atorvastatin binding to plasma proteins, haemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance atorvastatin clearance.

Presentation:

2 Blisters of 14 tablets each packed in a carton with a pack insert.

Storage:

Keep at temperature below 25°С. Keep all medicines out of reach of children.

Shelf life:

3 years

Manufacturer by

Oxford Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.

B/306, Crystal Plaza, New Link Road.

Andheri (W), Mumbai 400 053. India.